English name: licorice extract
Latin Name: Glycyrrhizic acid
Active ingredients: glycyrrhizin acid
Specification: glycyrrhizic acid 20%-98%
Glycyrrhizin A (a chalcone, mainly found in licorice) inhibits the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS) and inhibits COX-AP-1 and NF-kB, regardless of This is true both in vitro and when given to septic shock mice. These results replicate in macrophages inserted with 5-20 uM glycyrrhizin A, with minimal inhibition of IL-6 (more dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1β), and when 20, 40 or 80 mg /kg administration of glycyrrhizin A one hour prior to LPS injection can attenuate inflammatory changes in lung tissue.
Glycyrrhetinic acid itself can exert anti-proliferative effects (and is considered to be selective apoptosis) in MCF-7 cells through apoptosis, secondary to a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential; apoptosis effects appear to be associated with a decrease in Akt signaling It is associated with an increase in nuclear accumulation of FOXO3 (Akt activation excludes FOXO3 from the nucleus). After 48 hours of incubation with 100 uM glycyrrhetinic acid, the degree of inhibition of proliferation was 91.1% and the IC50 was 32.6 μM. This dose was associated with any toxicity in MCF-10A cells (non-cancerous breast cells) and the level of apoptosis after 24 hours. Irrelevant, at 100 uM (20.5%), greater than the active control (14.5%) of paclitaxel at 10 nM.
The biologically active glycyrrhetinic acid (glycyrrhizic acid derivative) appears to have an anti-proliferative effect, which may be to continue to maintain the anti-proliferative effect of cortisol and may have a direct cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells.
After another week of giving 7 g of licorice containing 0.5 g of glycyrrhizic acid to another healthy male, testosterone was reduced to 55% of the baseline on day 4, and the decrease was maintained until day 7 and normalized 4 days after the cessation. Due to the relative increase in 17-hydroxyprogesterone and no significant effect observed on androstenedione, this effect was thought to be mediated by 17-HSD inhibition. The study was later attempted to be repeated by another study group, but when males were given 5.6 g of glycyrrhizic acid, the testosterone reduction was not achieved, and the non-significant decrease in testosterone was noted to be 9.5%; the authors mentioned in these experiments that The data contains outliers, and the above 55% may be exaggerated. The first team used the same method and a larger sample to replicate their results and found a 26% reduction in testosterone (statistically significant) one week later, accompanied by an increase in 17-hydroxykinase and luteinizing hormone.
Limited evidence suggests that women with PCOS are beneficial in reducing androgen status (primary evidence suggests that it works well with spironolactone) but is also effective in other healthy women. The testosterone reduction effect of licorice seems to affect both sexes.
A patch containing licorice extract applied to mouth ulcers (recurrent aphthous ulcer) can increase the number of participants who do not report pain from 40% of untreated (and 61% of placebo patch) to 81% This reduces the size of the ulcer after one week of application.
A more moderate dose of licorice extract appears to have protective effects against toxin-induced testicular damage induced by carbendazim and ochratoxin A, with the latter study comparing 100 mg/kg licorice root extract with 15 mg/kg melatonin (relative Strong antioxidants). The licorice extract appeared to be slightly better than melatonin when administered 28 days prior to toxin.
Despite the potential for testosterone reduction, licorice appears to have protective effects on testicular function at low to moderate doses.
Licorice is one of the five promising medicinal herbs in the evaluation of Chinese medicine with the potential to treat cognitive decline (along with Rehmannia glutinosa, Angelica, Polygala and Poria). Three bioactive substances in licorice: glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizin) and iso-limonene contribute to this.
Glycyrrhizin A appears to have anti-angiogenic properties because licorice chalcone at a concentration of 20 uM or lower in rat HUVEC is capable of inhibiting proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Glycyrrhizin has similar anti-angiogenic potential by inhibiting HIFα-mediated VEGF expression, and exerts complete inhibition at 75 nmol/mL, eliminating HIFα protein content at 100 nmol/mL, which inhibits angiogenesis in vitro in HUVECs; It is mediated by glycyrrhizin, which greatly attenuates the activation of Akt / mTOR. Inhibition of angiogenesis by glycyrrhizin has been replicated in other studies in vivo when tumors have been implanted, with dose-dependent benefits noted, with oral intake of 10-40 mg / kg glycyrrhizin, and the highest test dose suppressed within 28 days. Half the size of the tumor.
Other compounds found in licorice appear to have PDE inhibition properties associated with intestinal relaxation, such as licorice coumarin and licorice chalcone A. There may be an antispasmodic (muscle relaxation) effect on the lower intestine; this may be related to laxative effects and spasm relief.
Glycyrrhizin seems to inhibit tyrosinase activity at a concentration of 0.1-1 ug / mL (inhibition of 17.5-39.1%) and appears to be mediated by the antioxidant properties of licorice (because 2', 4'-O - diethylglycine has no inhibitory effect). Although it has the same structure, its effect does not have antioxidant properties. The maximum inhibition was 10ug / mL, which was 49% higher than the control.
When applied topically to rodents as a 0.5% cream, Glycyrrhizin appears to slightly reduce erythema caused by UVB exposure, thought to be mediated by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition; active control over indomethacin weak.
Certificate of Analysis
Brown fine powder
Insoluble matter in water
100% through 80 mesh
Total of bacteria
Storage Store in cool & dry place. Do not freeze.
Keep away from strong light and heat.
Shelf life 2 years when properly stored
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